United Nations and its Organisations

United Nations and its Organisations

International Organisation
By   @pratibha,   2 years ago

United Nations is an International Organisation, which replaced the ineffective League of Nations. After world War I& II United Nations established on 24 October 1945. It aims to save succeeding generations from the fear of wars and raising the faith in human rights. It created conditions for peace, justice, equal rights sustainable development and promote better living standards.

Main organs of United Nations


  1. General Assembly

  2. UN Security Council

  3. Economic and Social Council

  4. UN Secretariat

  5. International Court of Justice

  6.UN Trusteeship Council


1. General Assembly (headquarter- New York)

  • It is a main deliberative organ. It has 193 member states.
  • All member states of UN are also the members of General Assembly and each member has one vote.
  • Assembly meets yearly (emergency session can also called), assembly led by the president elected from among the member states.
  • Decisions on important issue require 2/3 majority. 
  • Approve budgets.
  • Admission of new members on recommendation of UN Security Council.  
  • Works of general Assembly carried out by its 6 committees-
  1. first (Disarmament and International Security)
  2. second (Economic and Financial)
  3. third (Social Humanitarian & Cultural)
  4. fourth (Special Political and Decolonization)
  5. fifth (Administrative and Budgetary)
  6. sixth (Legal).


2. UN Security Council

  • It is responsible for international peace and security.
  • It make recommendations to General Assembly for appointment of secretary general and admission of new members.
  • 15 members -
  1. 5 permanent members (China, Japan, Russian Federation,  United Kingdom & United States) have the veto power ("NO") to any of the decisions of UN Security Council and
  2. 10 non- permanent members elected by General Assembly  for two years.
  • Meeting can be convened at any time whenever international peace threatened.
  • Decisions of Security Council known as UN Security Council Resolutions.


3. Economic and Social Council

  • It is the principal body for global economic and social affairs.
  • Responsible for cooperation between agencies and states related to economic and social matters.
  • It has 54 members elected by General Assembly for three years term.


4. UN Secretariat

  • It is the principal administrative body of UN.
  • Headed by the Secretary General (assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide) 
  • Secretary General appointed by General Assembly on recommendation of UN Security Council.
  • It organizes international conferences, operate peacemaking process, conduct surveys and researches.
  • Provide studies, information, & facilities needed by UN bodies for meeting.


5. international Court of Justice

  • It is the principal judicial organ of UN.
  • Established in 1945.
  • Located in Hague in Netherlands.
  • 15 judges appointed by General Assembly for nine year term.
  • It settle legal disputes between states.
  • Give advisory opinion on legal issues.


6. UN Trusteeship Council (currently inactive)

  • It founded to supervise administration of trust territories.
  • Established in 1945 to manage colonial possessions and prepare them to attain self government and independence.
  • Inactivated since 1994 till last territory attain independence.

Specialised Agencies of United Nations


  1. International Labour Organization (ILO)
  2. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
  3. UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  4. World Health Organization (WHO)
  5. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  6. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  7. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
  8. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
  9. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
  10. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  11. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)  
  12. United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
  13. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
  14. World Food Programme (WFP)
  15. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
  16. International Maritime Organization (IMO)


International Labour Organization (ILO)


  • Headquarter - Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ILO was set up by versailles Peace Treaty in 1919 after world war I.
  • 187 member, (186 of 193 UN member states plus cook islands).
  • It has tripartite governing structure - government, employers and workers.
  • Aim -Dealing with labour problems, set international labour standards, social protection and work opportunity for all.
  • It register complaint against entities violating international rules.
  • ILO received Noble Prize in 1969 for improving peace and pursuing descent work and justice.
  • It organize international labour conferences in Geneva every year in June where conventions and recommendations adopted. 
  • In 1998 - 86th conference adopted - "Declaration on Fundamental Principle and Right at work"
  • Fundamental policies of declaration
  1. end of forced or compulsory labour
  2. end of child labour 
  3. elimination of unfair discrimination among worker.
  • Flagship programme - International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour and Forced labour (IPEC+), Jobs for Peace and Resilience, Better Work,Occupational Safty & Health- Global action for prevention.

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)


  • Establishment- 1945, headed by Director General. Headquarter-Rome, Italy.
  • 197 member country along with European Union (member organization), Faroe islands and Tokelau (associate members).
  • Directed by the conference of member nations meets every two year.
  • Aim- elimination of hunger, improving nutrition and food security, set up programme for developing agriculture,forestry and fisheries.
  • Funded by its member nations for regular programme budget.
  • Composed of six department-
  1. Agriculture and Consumer Protection,
  2. Economic and Social Development,
  3. Fisheries and Agriculture,
  4. Climate, biodiversity, land and water department
  5. Forestry,
  6. Corporate Services Technical and  Programme Management.
  • Programme & Achievements-
  1. Codex Alimentarius (ie. food code, its a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations related to food, food production, and food safety).
  2. World Food Summit,
  3. Tele Food Agriculture- International Plant Protection Convention,
  4. Alliance Against Hunger and Malnutrition. 


UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)


  • Established in 16 November 1945. Headquarter at Paris(France). It has 195 member states and 8 associate members.
  • Main objectives-
  1. Contribution of peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through - education, science, culture & communication.
  2. Increasing Universal respect for human rights and justice.
  • Principles under objectives -
  1. Promotion of cultural diversity secure protection of cultural & world heritage.
  2. Attain quality of education, lifelong learning, ensuring the access of complete and free education to children.
  3. Encourages scientific researches, space for information & communication.
  4. Promotion of human right, fundamental freedom elimination of discrimination & racism.
  • Projects and Programme-
  1. World Heritage Sites
  2. City of literature
  3. Information for all programmes (IFAP)
  4. Man and Biosphere Reserve
  5. International Programme for Communication
  • Reports-
  1. Science Technology and Gender Report
  2. Global Education Monitory Report
  3. UNESCO Science Report.

World Health Organization (WHO)


  • Establishment- 1948, headquarter- Geneva (Switzerland).
  • It concerned with public health, 194 member country, headed by Director General.
  • Decision making body - World Health Assembly, meets yearly to determine the policies of organisation.
  • It played an important role in elimination of smallpox. At present time priorities are communicable diseases- HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria, tuberculosis, reducing effect of non-communicable diseases, development and aging , nutrition& food security etc.
  • Report-
  1. World Health Report
  2. The worldwide health survey.

United Nations Development Group (UNDP)


  • Headquartered in New York City. It was established in 1965 by General Assembly. 177 member countries. 
  • UNDP is an executive board in UN General Assembly.
  • UNDP help countries to achieve Sustainable Development Goal and encourage Global Development. To attain SDGs, UNDP focuses on- elimination of poverty, conservation of energy and environment, social development, protection of human rights and women empowerment.
  • Human Development Report (HDR), published by Human development report office to analyse development programme.
  • Other reports- Regional ,National and Local Human development report.
  • UNDP also involved in development of Post 2015 Development Agenda.

International Civil Aviation Organization


  • ICAO came into being in 1947 after the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944).
  • Headquarter- Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • Defines the protocols for air accidents investigation.
  • It organize principles and techniques for international air navigation in safe and orderly manner.
  • Its strategic objectives are- Capacity and efficiency, Security and Facilitation, Economic Development, Environment Protection.
  • Component body-
  1. Assembly, member meet every three year, make decision by simple majority vote,         
  2. Council, permanent body adopt standardsand recommendations about air navigation, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference.
  3. Air Navigation Commission, a technical body.
  4. Secretariat, appointed by Council.
  • ICAO adopted global market based measures for carbon emission, the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).

International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD)


  • Headquarter- Rome (Italy), headed by President.
  • Established in 1977, as an international financial institution, after World Food Conference in 1974.
  • It is a member of United Nation Development Group.
  • Its main focus is on eradication of hunger and poverty from the rural areas of developing country.
  • It's goal is to empower men and women of rural areas in developing countries and ensures better income and living standards.
  • Objectives-
  1. technology based agriculture to increase production
  2. availability of natural resources as land and water
  3. financial services
  4. transparent and competitive market
  5. policy and programming.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)


  • Headquarter- Vienna, Austria.
  • Member of United Nations Development group.
  • Main objective- encouragement and acceleration of industrial development in developing country and promotion of international industrial cooperation.
  • UNIDO works in the following areas -
  1. private sector development, employment creation, steps to economic growth, to overcome poverty.
  2. technical cooperation and industrial modernization.
  3. promotion of renewable source of energy, improving industrial energy efficiency to prevent environmental degradation (step towards sustainable energy and environment management ).
  • Report- Industrial Development Report Series.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)


  • Establishment- 1975, headquarter- Madrid, Spain, 156 member.
  • Responsible for the promotion of liable, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism, generate market knowledge, tourism education and training, promote competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instrument.
  • Contribution in international understanding, peace, respect for human rights and fundamental freedom.
  • Structure- General Assembly, Executive Council, Committee,Secretariat.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)


  • Formation- 1865, headquarter- Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Responsible for affairs related to information and communication technology (ICTs).
  • It is an intergovernmental public- private partnership organisation.
  • It involved in allocation of radio spectrum and satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure, development and coordination of worldwide technical     standards.
  • Areas covered- broadband internet, latest technology, aeronautical and maritime             navigation, meteorology(satellite based), TV broadcasting.
  • ITU sectors- radio communication, standardization, development and ITU telecom.

WIPO and UNHRC


World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

  • Established in 1967 to promote creative activity, headquarter- Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Promote creative activity and protection of intellectual property worldwide.
  • Promote activity to facilitate the transfer of technology& economic, social, and cultural development.
  • In December 2011 publish first intellectual property report.


United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

  • Established in 2006 , 47 member states.
  • It is an intergovernmental body responsible for promotion and protection of human rights around the world.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 


  • Established in 1957, headquarter- Viena.
  • It serve as a medium for cooperation in the peaceful use of science & technology, nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide.
  • Promote nuclear safety and security standards and their implementation, providing international safeguard against nuclear material.
  • Inhibits the use of nuclear power for any military purpose.
  • IEAE reports both the UN General Assembly and Security Council.

World Food Program (WFP)


  • Formally established in 1963, headquarter- Rome, its a food assistance branch of UN.
  • Member of UNDG and part of its executive committee.
  • Work for elimination of hunger and malnutrition, help those countries unable to fulfill their food requirement.
  • Goals-
  1. save and restore lives in emergency
  2. elimination of hunger and malnutrition
  3. zero hunger up to 2030.
  • Also focus on- micronutrients deficiency, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combat diseases.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 


  • Headquarter- Geneva, established in 1873 after the ratification of WMO convention (1950).
  • WMO dedicated to meteorology (weather, climate and water), hydrology and geophysical science.
  • It provide information on long term climate change as atmospheric concentration of green house gases, sea level rising and sea ice extent
  • Plan of action- disaster risk reduction
  1. Global framework for Climate Services (GFCS)
  2. WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS)
  3. aviation meteorological services.
  •  WMO publishes-Green House Gas Bulletin.

International Maritime Organization (IMO)


  • Headquarter- London,United Kingdom, 173 member states.
  • Responsible for regulation of shipping .
  • Purpose- safety, environmental issues, legal matters technical cooperation, maritime security.
  • IT facilitate international maritime traffic, land lines and the carriage of dangerous goods.
  • Conventions- SOLAS, Torrey Canyon, International Convention for the Prevention of pollution by Ship 73/78.



Author : Pratibha Gaurav
Pratibha Gaurav
@pratibha

Author

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